# 11.1: Extra-Long Straws

A drinking straw is a tube for transferring a beverage from its container to the mouth of the drinker and is typically a thin tube of plastic (such as polypropylene and polystyrene) or other material. Many people believe that when they drink a liquid they are sucking the liquid up, however the liquid is really being pushed up. Since the atmospheric pressure is greater on the outside of the straw, liquid is forced into and up the straw and into your mouth (Figure (PageIndex{1})).

Figure (PageIndex{1}): As you suck the air out of the straw, it creates a low pressure zone inside of it. With a low pressure zone, there is nothing pushing down on the juice, so it moves upward easily. (CC BY-NC 4.0; Ümit Kaya)

How Long of a Straw is Possible?

With the straw just sitting in the glass, the pressure on the surface of the tea is the same all over, including on the little bit of surface inside the straw. When you suck the air out of the straw, you decrease the pressure inside the straw, allowing the higher pressure on the rest of the surface to push the tea up the straw and into your mouth. Because it is really the atmosphere that is doing the pushing, the atmospheric pressure limits how high water will go up a straw.

If you formed a perfect vacuum within the straw, the pressure outside of the straw at sea level would be enough to push water to a total height of about 10.3 m. A 10.3-m column of water exerts the same pressure—101,325 N/m2 or 14.7 lb/in2 (psi)—as do the gas molecules in our atmosphere. At sea level, the air pressure is enough to support a column of water about thirty feet high. This means that even if you could suck all the air out of a forty-foot straw, the water would not rise more than thirty feet.

## Pearson eText -- Introductory Chemistry -- Instant Access, 6th Edition

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#### This product accompanies

1.2 Chemicals Compose Ordinary Things

1.3 The Scientific Method: How Chemists Think

1.4 Analyzing and Interpreting Data

1.5 A Beginning Chemist: How to Succeed

2 Measurement and Problem Solving

2.1 The Metric Mix-up: A \$125 Million Unit Error

2.2 Scientific Notation: Writing Large and Small Numbers

2.3 Significant Figures: Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision

2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations

2.5 The Basic Units of Measurement

2.6 Problem Solving and Unit Conversion

2.7 Solving Multistep Unit Conversion Problems

2.8 Unit Conversion in Both the Numerator and Denominator

2.9 Units Raised to a Power

2.11 Numerical Problem-Solving Strategies and the Solution Map

3.3 Classifying Matter According to Its State: Solid, Liquid, and Gas

3.4 Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

3.5 Differences in Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties

3.6 Changes in Matter: Physical and Chemical Changes

3.7 Conservation of Mass: There Is No New Matter

3.9 Energy and Chemical and Physical Change

3.10 Temperature: Random Motion of Molecules and Atoms

3.11 Temperature Changes: Heat Capacity

3.12 Energy and Heat Capacity Calculations

4.1 Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon

4.2 Indivisible: The Atomic Theory

4.4 The Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

4.5 Elements: Defined by Their Numbers of Protons

4.6 Looking for Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table

4.7 Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons

4.8 Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies

4.9 Atomic Mass: The Average Mass of an Element’s Atoms

5 Molecules and Compounds

5.2 Compounds Display Constant Composition

5.3 Chemical Formulas: How to Represent Compounds

5.4 A Molecular View of Elements and Compounds

5.5 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

5.6 Nomenclature: Naming Compounds

5.7 Naming Ionic Compounds

5.8 Naming Molecular Compounds

5.11 Formula Mass: The Mass of a Molecule or Formula Unit

6.2 Counting Nails by the Pound

6.3 Counting Atoms by the Gram

6.4 Counting Molecules by the Gram

6.5 Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors

6.6 Mass Percent Composition of Compounds

6.7 Mass Percent Composition from a Chemical Formula

6.8 Calculating Empirical Formulas for Compounds

6.9 Calculating Molecular Formulas for Compounds

7.1 Grade School Volcanoes, Automobiles, and Laundry Detergents

7.2 Evidence of a Chemical Reaction

7.4 How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations

7.5 Aqueous Solutions and Solubility: Compounds Dissolved in Water

7.6 Precipitation Reactions: Reactions in Aqueous Solution That Form a Solid

7.7 Writing Chemical Equations for Reactions in Solution: Molecular, Complete Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations

7.8 Acid–Base and Gas Evolution Reactions

7.9 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions

7.10 Classifying Chemical Reactions

8 Quantities in Chemical Reactions

8.1 Climate Change: Too Much Carbon Dioxide

8.2 Making Pancakes: Relationships between Ingredients

8.3 Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions

8.4 Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions

8.5 More Pancakes: Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield

8.6 Limiting Reactant[JJ2] , Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield from Initial Masses of Reactants

8.7 Enthalpy: A Measure of the Heat Evolved or Absorbed in a Reaction

9 Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table

9.1 Blimps, Balloons, and Models of the Atom

9.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

9.4 The Bohr Model: Atoms with Orbits

9.5 The Quantum-Mechanical Model: Atoms with Orbitals

9.6 Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals and Electron Configurations

9.7 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

9.8 The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model

9.9 Periodic Trends: Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, and Metallic Character

10.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs

10.2 Representing Valence Electrons with Dots

10.3 Lewis Structures of Ionic Compounds: Electrons Transferred

10.4 Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared

10.5 Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds

10.6 Resonance: Equivalent Lewis Structures for the Same Molecule

10.7 Predicting the Shapes of Molecules

10.8 Electronegativity and Polarity: Why Oil and Water Don’t Mix

11.2 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases

11.3 Pressure: The Result of Constant Molecular Collisions

11.4 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume

11.5 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature

11.6 The Combined Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature

11.7 Avogadro’s Law: Volume and Moles

11.8 The Ideal Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, Temperature, and Moles

11.10 Gases in Chemical Reactions

12 Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces

12.2 Properties of Liquids and Solids

12.3 Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension and Viscosity

12.4 Evaporation and Condensation

12.5 Melting, Freezing, and Sublimation

12.6 Types of Intermolecular Forces: Dispersion, Dipole–Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding, and Ion–Dipole

12.7 Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular, Ionic, and Atomic

12.8 Water: A Remarkable Molecule

13.2 Solutions: Homogeneous Mixtures

13.3 Solutions of Solids Dissolved in Water: How to Make Rock Candy

13.4 Solutions of Gases in Water: How Soda Pop Gets Its Fizz

13.5 Specifying Solution Concentration: Mass Percent

13.6 Specifying Solution Concentration: Molarity

13.8 Solution Stoichiometry

13.9 Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation: Making Water Freeze Colder and Boil Hotter

13.10 Osmosis: Why Drinking Saltwater Causes Dehydration

14.1 Sour Patch Kids and International Spy Movies

14.2 Acids: Properties and Examples

14.3 Bases: Properties and Examples

14.4 Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases

14.5 Reactions of Acids and Bases

14.6 Acid–Base Titration: A Way to Quantify the Amount of Acid or Base in a Solution

14.7 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

14.8 Water: Acid and Base in One

14.9 The pH and pOH Scales: Ways to Express Acidity and Basicity

14.10 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change

15.1 Life: Controlled Disequilibrium

15.2 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction

15.3 The Idea of Dynamic Chemical Equilibrium

15.4 The Equilibrium Constant: A Measure of How Far a Reaction Goes

15.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria: The Equilibrium Expression for Reactions Involving a Solid or a Liquid

15.6 Calculating and Using Equilibrium Constants

15.7 Disturbing a Reaction at Equilibrium: Le Ch®telier’s Principle

15.8 The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium

15.9 The Effect of a Volume Change on Equilibrium

15.10 The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium

15.11 The Solubility-Product Constant

15.12 The Path of a Reaction and the Effect of a Catalyst

16 Oxidation and Reduction

16.1 The End of the Internal Combustion Engine?

16.2 Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions

16.3 Oxidation States: Electron Bookkeeping

16.4 Balancing Redox Equations

16.5 The Activity Series: Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions[JJ3]

16.6 Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity

16.7 Electrolysis: Using Electricity to Do Chemistry

16.8 Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions

17.1 Diagnosing Appendicitis

17.3 Types of Radioactivity: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay

17.6 Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Other Artifacts

## 100 PCS 10-Inch Extra Long Multi-Colored Flexible Bendy Disposable Plastic Drinking Straws BPA-Free

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## Choosing the right length and width for your reusable straws

You’re aware of the negative impacts of single-use plastic straws on our planet — and you’ve committed to refusing single-use plastic straws in your personal life — or for your food and drink service business. The only question you have is how do you choose the right length and width for your reusable straw.

As an original and leading wholesale bulk supplier of reusable stainless steel drinking straws for the U.S. market, specializing in custom engraved drinking straws, Steelys can help you choose the correct length and width of reusable straw for your needs. All of our straws are easy to clean, dishwasher safe food grade and BPA free. Our customers love these straws when making the perfect drink.

### REUSABLE STRAW SIZE CHART

The standard length and width of single-use disposable straws that you’ll find at most bars and restaurants are 8.5” long. The standard drinking straw diameter is .24” wide. In some instances, however, you will need a longer or wider straw to accommodate specific beverages or taller cups and bottles. We’ll cover that in this article, and we have also produced a useful straw size chart, which visually details the various straw sizes.

### SHORTEST REUSABLE STRAW SIZE

Our shortest reusable straw is the Short Cocktail Straw, which measures 5” long. It is a straight straw that can be used as drinking straws, or as stirrers for mixed drinks in shorter tumblers or coffee mugs. This short straw is available only in a .24” diameter.

Another popular straw for cocktails is our 8” long reusable spoon straw. It features a .24” width, and 1-3/8” round spoon attached. It’s a great straw for many premium drinks like Mint Juleps, Mojitos, and even non-alcohol drinks like milkshakes or snow cones.

### STANDARD REUSABLE STRAW SIZE

The standard reusable straw size is 8.5” long x .24” wide. This is by far the most popular straw size, and it will work for most applications. We offer the standard 8.5” x .24” reusable straw in either straight or as a reusable bent stainless steel drinking straws profiles, either standard polished silver or in anodized colors that won’t scratch, chip, peel or fade.

### REUSABLE WIDE STRAW

Some users and food and beverage establishments prefer a slightly wider straw diameter that can allow for a bigger blast of beverage. Straws with a diameter of .30” – .32” would be considered a wide straw. We can produce reusable wide straws, as an upgrade to our standard 8.5” straws, upon request.

### REUSABLE SMOOTHIE STRAW

If you prefer a wider straw for thicker beverages, you should consider a smoothie straw. A standard smoothie straw is 8.5” long but features a wider .36” diameter. Some people prefer bent reusable smoothie straws, while others like the straight reusable smoothie straws. Either way, reusable smoothie straws work great for beverages like smoothies, powder shakes, super food blends, or yogurt.

### REUSABLE EXTRA WIDE BOBA STRAW

Boba, or bubble tea, is a delicious treat that is growing in popularity globally. Boba drinks — which are infused with sweet, thick tapioca pearls — are difficult to consume without an extra wide boba drinking straw. They also typically come with excessive plastic waste, so our reusable Boba Straws are the best eco-solution. Like their plastic counterparts, our steel Boba Straws are 8.5” long with a .36” diameter. Some

### REUSABLE EXTRA LONG STRAWS

Standard 8.5” long straws may not work for extra tall tumblers or popular retail beverage containers with extra-large beverage capacity, like the 30-oz YETI Rambler. For these products, we also offer extra long 9.5” reusable stainless steel straws in boxed sets, and we can upgrade any straw order to extra-long length upon request, just let us know what you need.

You can also buy reusable straw travel sets, in a variety of lengths — in cotton drawstring bags or canvas pouches. Our reusable travel straw sets give you reusable straw options so you can enjoy any drink in your favorite tumblers, no matter where you are — so you can always live up to your commitment to cut single-use plastic waste.

### HOW TO CLEAN REUSABLE STRAWS

Whether your reusing stainless steel drinking straws at a restaurant or home setting — cleaning, maintaining and reusing them is easy. Our tips for cleaning reusable drinking straws were compiled from on-site visits and interviews with real Steelys customers who use our straws either at home or in commercial settings. They are meant to give general tips and practical guidelines on both household and commercial straw cleaning applications. Please additionally consider local health department protocols, which can vary by location and state. Check below for more information on cleaning your reusable straws. For convenience, we also sell Steelys® Straw Cleaning Brushes to make it easy to clean and maintain any reusable drinking straw. Just insert the brush into the straw with warm soapy water, scrub, and rinse clean. The straw cleaning brushes are available wholesale and bulk direct in case quantities. A great eco-friendly accessory for a zero-waste lifestyle.

## A Really Long Straw

Introduction
Have you ever used a crazy straw? Some spiral their way up. Others have fancy colors or decorations. Some are thin and others are wide. But just about all of them leave you sipping your drink from about the same distance. Why? Wouldn't it be fun to poke your head out of an upstairs window and secretly take a sip from a drink way below? Would it even be possible? With this activity, you&rsquoll see if you can set your own record for the longest working straw!

Background
Sipping a drink through a straw might seem simple. But you are actually using some fancy air pressure changes to move your beverage. The sipping action occurs when you lower the air pressure in your mouth, which allows the atmospheric pressure to push the liquid up the straw.

Does that sound bizarre? Here is a little more explanation: The atmosphere is a massive layer of air. The weight of all that air is constantly pressing on us and on the things around us. At sea level, this invisible pressure is approximately 14.7 pounds per square inch. That is like having the weight of a bowling ball sitting on each square inch or five bowling balls pressing on the liquid filling a two-and-a-half-inch-diameter glass. Put a straw into liquid and the liquid will enter the straw until it reaches the same level as the liquid outside the straw. The liquid in the straw and around it is being pushed down by the air above it in a similar way, so they reach about the same level.

But it gets interesting when you remove some air from the straw. Suddenly, there is less air pressure inside and liquid is pushed up the straw. The more air you remove from the straw, the higher the liquid will be pushed into it.

Do you think there is a limit to how high the liquid can rise in a straw? This activity will help you make a very large &ldquomega-straw&rdquo and test it out!

• A package of plastic straws (at least one dozen), preferably those with a bendable part
• Scissors
• Ruler
• Tape
• Drinking glass filled with water
• Level surface that can get wet (or if not, something to protect it)
• Sturdy chair or table on which to stand

Preparation

• Have an adult help to cut two half-inch slits, across from one another, lengthwise in one end of a plastic straw. These cuts will help you slip the end of one straw over another one.
• Prepare 10 more straws in a similar way until you have enough for a superlong mega-straw! (You can also come back to these steps during the process in case you need more straws for your mega-straw.)
• Slip the cut end of a prepared straw over the end of an unprepared straw.
• Wrap the area where the straws overlap with tape so you have an airtight seal. Do not hurry a good airtight seal will help you avoid trouble later. Why do you think a secure, airtight seal is essential for your mega-straw to function well? (Hint: When you drink with a straw, you must remove air from it.)
• To test your extralong straw, put a glass of water on level ground. (Be sure to place something down to protect your level surface or use one that can get.) Now hold your straw vertically or close to vertically and try to drink with it. Does water reach your mouth?
• If little or no liquid enters the straw, check the seal where you joined the straws. Is it airtight? If not, add tape or undo and redo this connection. If the seals at all joints seem airtight, check for holes in other areas of your mega-straw and seal them with tape.
• Play around with your first mega-straw. Suck lightly to remove a little air from the straw then suck hard to remove more air. Observe each time how high the water rises in your mega-straw. What happens if you suck up more air? Why do you think this happens?
• Time to add on! Attach another prepared straw to your mega-straw in a similar way and put your lengthened mega-straw to the test. Remember to hold your straw vertically or close to vertically during your test. Is your new straw functioning properly? Does it get harder to suck up water?
• Keep adding prepared straws and testing after each addition. You might have to carefully stand on a chair to test your growing mega-straw. Does it become harder and harder to suck up water as you stand higher and higher above the glass?
• Once you have connected a few straws together and it becomes a little challenging to drink with the straw, test your mega-straw at different angles. In addition to holding the straw vertically, test it at an angle about halfway between horizontal and vertical (approximately 45 degrees) as well as by holding it as close to horizontal as possible. Note that you might need to add more water to your glass to test a fairly horizontal position. Is there a difference in effort needed to suck up water? If so, rank the straw positions in descending order: 1 being the hardest to suck up water, or needing most effort 3 being the easiest, or needing the least effort. Note that you did not change the distance over which the water was transported the straw stayed the same length. What did you change that might have created a difference in effort needed?
• Pause a moment and think about how the difference in height between your mouth and the glass changed depending on the angle at which you held the mega-straw. Rank the methods in descending order of difference in height between your mouth and the glass: 1 being the position with the most height 3, the position with the least height. Do you see a correlation between the difference in height and the effort you needed to suck up water?
• If you have bendable sections in your straw, test what happens if you keep the height of your glass and your head the same but change the way you bend the mega-straw. Try a straight mega-straw and a mega-straw with one or several kinks. How do the levels of effort compare now that you keep the difference in height unchanged?
• Build on. How many straws can you connect before you can no longer drink from it if held vertically? Do you think there is a limit or would you be able to build on indefinitely, as long as you could test it from higher and higher places?
Extra: Test with different types of straws, such as ones that are wide or very narrow. Would one type be more suited to make a mega-straw?

Observations and results
When you suck air from the straw, less air pushes on the water inside the straw than on the water outside of it. This imbalance causes more water to be pushed into the straw. The water will rise until the pressure created by the water column in the straw equals the air pressure difference.

Remove more air, and a bigger difference in air pressure will cause the water level to rise even higher into the straw. As soon as the water reaches the height of your mouth, you can drink.

Your lung power determines how much air you can remove. Some will have difficulty with a three-foot straw whereas others can successfully drink standing eight feet above their drink!

There is a limit though. If you could create a complete vacuum in your mouth by removing all the air, the water could rise about 30 feet high. It's not possible, however, to create a complete vacuum in the human mouth, so usually people reach their straw-slurping limit at a much lower level!

Note that it is mainly the difference in height the water needs to overcome that counts, not the total length the water needs to travel in the straw. Holding your straw almost horizontally will allow you to suck up water over a very long distance.

More to explore
Would a Straw Work in Space? from Science-Based Life
How Do Drinking Straws Work? from Indiana Public Media
Under an Ocean of Air Pressure, from University of Illinois Extension
Atmospheric Pressure, from ScienceOnline

This activity brought to you in partnership with Science Buddies

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## 11.1: Extra-Long Straws

1 A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse

from his roots a Branch will bear fruit.

2 The Spirit of the Lord will rest on him—

the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding,

the Spirit of counsel and of might,

the Spirit of the knowledge and fear of the Lord —

3 and he will delight in the fear of the Lord .

He will not judge by what he sees with his eyes,

or decide by what he hears with his ears

4 but with righteousness he will judge the needy,

with justice he will give decisions for the poor of the earth.

He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth

with the breath of his lips he will slay the wicked.

5 Righteousness will be his belt

and faithfulness the sash around his waist.

6 The wolf will live with the lamb,

the leopard will lie down with the goat,

the calf and the lion and the yearling a together

and a little child will lead them.

7 The cow will feed with the bear,

their young will lie down together,

and the lion will eat straw like the ox.

8 The infant will play near the cobra’s den,

and the young child will put its hand into the viper’s nest.

9 They will neither harm nor destroy

for the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the Lord

as the waters cover the sea.

10 In that day the Root of Jesse will stand as a banner for the peoples the nations will rally to him, and his resting place will be glorious. 11 In that day the Lord will reach out his hand a second time to reclaim the surviving remnant of his people from Assyria, from Lower Egypt, from Upper Egypt, from Cush, b from Elam, from Babylonia, c from Hamath and from the islands of the Mediterranean.

12 He will raise a banner for the nations

and gather the exiles of Israel

he will assemble the scattered people of Judah

from the four quarters of the earth.

13 Ephraim’s jealousy will vanish,

and Judah’s enemies d will be destroyed

Ephraim will not be jealous of Judah,

nor Judah hostile toward Ephraim.

14 They will swoop down on the slopes of Philistia to the west

together they will plunder the people to the east.

They will subdue Edom and Moab,

and the Ammonites will be subject to them.

the gulf of the Egyptian sea

with a scorching wind he will sweep his hand

He will break it up into seven streams

so that anyone can cross over in sandals.

16 There will be a highway for the remnant of his people

that is left from Assyria,

when they came up from Egypt.