Amalie Emmy Noether

Amalie Emmy Noether, Germanic mathematics, was born on March 23, 1882 in Erlange, Bavaria (Germany), and died on April 14, 1935. She was the eldest daughter of a Jewish family of four. He completed his doctorate with a dissertation on algebraic invariants and gained notoriety for his work in abstract algebra.

Daughter of Max Noether, mathematical teacher, and Ida Kaufmann, from a rich family from Cologne, both families of Jewish origin. Studied at School Höhere Töchter, at Erlangen (1889-1897) where he studied German, English, French, arithmetic and piano lessons. She also studied English and French and took official exams in the state of Bavaria (1900), earning her certificate and becoming a teacher in Bavarian girls' schools.

Obtained permission to attend Erlangen University (1900-1902). In 1903, he passed the exam in Nuremberg and went to the University of Göttingen. He studied with Blumenthal, Hilbert, Klein and Minkowski, and in 1904 obtained permission to enroll in Erlangen, which until then was unheard of for women in Germany. It was guided by Paul Gordan, and with a thesis on invariant theory applied to Hilbert's theorem, it reached Ph.D. level in 1907 from Erlangen University, even at a time when women were not allowed to attend universities in Germany. .

With her reputation growing rapidly for her publications, in 1908 she was elected to the Mathematical Circuit of Palermo and the following year she was invited to participate in the Deutsche Mathematiker Vereinigungas part of the annual meeting of the Society in Salzburg. Due to her feminine condition, only after more than ten years could she join Göttingen's paintings, thanks to the help of colleagues like Hilbert, with whom she published a catalog with the title of Physics-Mathematics Seminar in 1916.

In 1921 he published a paper of fundamental importance for the development of modern algebra, called Idealtheorie in Ringbereichen. In 1924 she was a teacher of the Dutchman B L Van der Waerden, who later published Moderne Algebra in two volumes, with most of the second volume devoted to Amalie's work.

In 1927, he collaborated with Helmut Hasse and Richard Brauer on work on non-commutative algebra. He attended the Bologna International Mathematical Congress (1928) and also the Zurich Congress (1932), the same year he won the prize entitled Alfred Ackermann-Teubner Memorial Prize for the Advancement of Mathematical Knowledge. In 1933, he migrated to the USA, starting to work in the Bryn Mawr College and in Institute for Advanced Studyin Princeton, New Jersey. Two years later he died in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, USA. His work on invariant theory was used by Albert Einstein in formulating the theory of relativity.