00: Front Matter

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The MDL programming language began existence in late 1970 (under the name Muddle) as a successor to Lisp (Moon, 1974), a candidate vehicle for the Dynamic Modeling System, and a possible base for implementation of Planner (Hewitt, 1969). The original design goals included an interactive integrated environment for programming, debugging, loading, and editing: ease in learning and use facilities for structured, modular, shared programs extensibility of syntax, data types and operators: data-type checking for debugging and optional data-type declarations for compiled efficiency associative storage, coroutining, and graphics. Along the way to reaching those goals, it developed flexible input/output (including the ARPA Network), and flexible interrupt and signal handling. It now serves as a base for software prototyping, research, development, education, and implementation of the majority of programs at MIT-DMS: a library of sharable modules, a coherent user interface, special research projects, autonomous daemons, etc.

This document was originally intended to be a simple low-level introduction to MDL. It has, however, acquired a case of elephantiasis and now amounts to a discursive description of the whole interpreter, as realized in MDL release numbers 55 (ITS version) and 105 (Tenex and Tops-20 versions). (Significant changes from the previous edition are marked in the margin.) A low-level introduction may still be had by restricting one's attention to specially-marked sections only. The scope of the document is confined as much as possible to the interpreter itself. Other adjuncts (compiler, assembler, pre-loaded user programs, library) are mentioned as little as possible, despite their value in promoting the language seen by a user from "basic survival" to "comfortable living". Indeed, MDL could not fulfill the above design goals without the compiler, assembler, structure editor, control-stack printer, context printer, pretty-printer, dynamic loader, and library system -- all of which are not part of the interpreter but programs written in MDL and symbiotic with one another. Further information on these adjuncts can be found in Lebling's (1979) document.

Front Matter

Let&rsquos Go teaches you step-by-step how to create fast, secure and maintainable web applications using the fantastic programming language Go.

The idea behind this book is to help you learn by doing. Together we&rsquoll walk through the start-to-finish build of a web application — from structuring your workspace, through to session management, authenticating users, securing your server and testing your application.

Building a complete web application in this way has several benefits. It helps put the things you&rsquore learning into context, it demonstrates how different parts of your codebase link together, and it forces us to work through the edge-cases and difficulties that come up when writing software in real-life. In essence, you&rsquoll learn more than you would by just reading Go&rsquos (great) documentation or standalone blog posts.

By the end of the book you’ll have the understanding &mdash and confidence &mdash to build your own production-ready web applications with Go.

Although you can read this book cover-to-cover, it&rsquos designed specifically so you can follow along with the project build yourself.


"When a thing is hidden away with so much pains, merely to repeal it is to destroy it." TERTULLIAN.


and printed at The Old Bourne Press,
under the supervision of W. H. Broome
15 Holhorn, London, E.C.

Scanned at, August-October 2006. Proofed and formatted by John Bruno Hare. This text is in the public domain in the United States because it was published prior to January 1st, 1923. These files may be used for any non-commercial purpose, provided this notice of attribution is left intact in all copies.

This ancient monument of the Mysteries portrays the action of the Solar Flame in and about the God-enlightened man. When governed and directed upward this Flame becomes the instrument which the soul uses to build up its deathless Solar or Spiritual Body.


This book is for the student who seeks to illuminate his intelligence by the Torch of his own divinity. Let him whose quest is the gratification of a selfish intellectualism beware its pages, for this is a book of hidden mystery and power. Therefore let the mind be pure that it may invite the approach of the Pilgrim Soul and come into a new realisation of God's Omnipotence and Justice.

Click to enlarge
The Polish Rider, by courtesy of the Berlin Photographic Company, London and New York.

"A nobleman of high rank and a great Cabalist, whose lands lie towards the frontiers of Poland." PAGE 9.

Fix YAML Front Matter Date #3330

Can anyone tell me why I get this console error:

If I change the Date value to:

. then it compiled just fine??

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Troyswanson commented Jan 20, 2015

I'd love to know more about what you're trying to accomplish with that date value in your front-matter. The reason it's not compiling is pretty simple, and the error message even lets you know: that date is invalid in the context of YAML. Jekyll will not replace the string that you put there with the current date.

I'm still curious as to why you'd want to do this in the first place. Maybe we can figure out a better solution for you, because this implementation is very odd.

Parkr commented Jan 20, 2015

@ldexterldesign That isn't a default date at all. That post is the ERB template we use to generate the new post when you run jekyll new my-site . We read in the file and run it through ERB which creates something like date: 2015-01-20 12:09:42 , which is a valid date. You cannot use ERB in your templates with Jekyll out of the box.

Ldexterldesign commented Jan 21, 2015

@parkr ahh, that did cross my mind last night after I posted this - cheers for the clarification

@troyswanson out of interest, is there a better way of generating a post timestamp with Jekyll without hardcoding one?

Alfredxing commented Jan 21, 2015

@ldexterldesign If you don't include date in the front-matter Jekyll falls back to the file name, so you can always generate that. I think jekyll-compose does this for you.

Ldexterldesign commented Jan 22, 2015

@alfredxing thanks, I now realise that unless you're using date as a variable (or need the minute/second timestamp), then it's not crucial this is included in *.post front matter

00: Front Matter

Hugo supports a variety of markup languages for generating content. Markdown is the most popular amongst them and most widely used.

In this article we’ll create formatted posts using Markdown to fill up the content pages used in the website for Acme Corporation.

Take 37% off Hugo in Action by entering fccjain into the discount code box at checkout at

Markup languages

Hugo natively supports Markdown and HTML for content markup. It also supports asciidoc, reStructured Text and pandoc via external helpers. External helpers are command line parsers which Hugo calls and Hugo can’t guarantee great performance with them. Markdown is the most popular format for writing text-based content. It’s the simplest of the content markup languages and it’s easy to read without any formatting by a document processor. Asciidoc is built for creating larger pieces of contents like books. It provides more features than markdown, though they come at a cost in flexibility. This article is written using asciidoc. reStructured Text is used for generating documentation projects and it’s a formally defined and stricter language providing easier parsing at the cost of simplicity. Pandoc is a tool for file format conversion that supports a superset of markdown which Hugo can convert to HTML using its command line.

Markdown trades simplicity and ease of use over features. It’s the perfect language for website content which doesn’t span beyond a couple of pages. Hugo’s markdown parser is fast and powerful. It’s recommended for users, who are new to Hugo, to begin with the markdown format unless they already know a different markup language.

Table 1. Content Markup Languages in Hugo

Pandoc’s Markdown

reStructured Text

Hugo Support


Human Readability

Primary Target

Note that Hugo constantly adds support for new formats. As of writing this article, there were active discussions to natively support AsciiDoc in Hugo.

Markdown is an extremely lightweight format for writing easy to read and easy to write plain text documents which have some level of structure and formatting support. Created in 2004 by John Gruber and Aaron Swartz. Being able to be written as plain text in command line, git commit messages, plain text boxes and chat pods enables markdown to provide basic formatting anywhere text can be supplied. Markdown is the most popular format for writing README documents, used to detail the code documentation. Original Markdown has a limited set of features which has been extended by CommonMark, which was further extended as Github Flavored Markdown (GFM) which is amongst the most popular variant. Hugo supports most of GFM and adds supports more extensions via two libraries BlackFriday and MMark. Blackfriday is built as a general-purpose Markdown parser. It supports Github flavored markdown and adds supports for more extensions. Hugo parses files with extensions md and markdown with BlackFriday.

MMark extends BlackFriday for generating IETF Documentation. IETF or Internet Engineering Task Force that maintains the documentation for TCP, IP, HTTP and other protocols of the Internet. MMark supports cross-references, citations, callouts and indices for content. Hugo parses files with extension mmark with MMark.

Markdown Editors

Markdown is built as a language which can be read and written in a plain text editor without any special support for this format. Many users don’t have any special editor for Markdown. Plain text editors like Sublime Text and VS Code provide color coding to help identify special formatting in markdown. They also support live preview of markdown content in the output format. If you’re looking for a dedicated Markdown editor, there are tools like the Typora and iA Writer which provide a lot of capabilities for helping create good markdown documents. They support keyboard shortcuts and inline or live previews. Online tools like Dropbox Paper also support markdown.

Apart from these pandoc can convert many file formats including Microsoft Office, Open Office, Latex, MediaWiki to markdown.

Organizing your posts with block elements

Markdown is extremely easy to write. A plain blob of text converts to paragraphs. A single line break between text is ignored. Two, or more, line breaks create empty lines between text, which is required to change between paragraphs. This requirement isn’t arbitrary. Markdown is made for writing/reading in text boxes where automatic text wrapping may not be available. Therefore, authors are allowed to manually create line breaks without impacting outputs. To create a line break, add two spaces at the end of the line and then add a new line character (via enter key).

Markdown is a practical language. It’s built with the objective of human readability and understandability. As a naturally evolved rather than committee-built language, markdown has been patched whenever a major issue has emerged after a syntax is standardized, making it an easy to use language with some idiosyncrasies.

Listing 1. Writing paragraphs in markdown

Two way can create top level headings. First is to underline the text with a set of equal signs for level one or with dashes for level two. This makes headings highlighted and readable. The second approach is to use hashes () before the text. Single sign creates level one and double creates level two. We can use this to reach until level six of headings in most parsers. To distinguish with hashtags, which have become popular to label issues, Github Flavored Markdown requires a space after the “has” sign to be considered a valid heading. Hashes between tags don’t create headings.

Listing 2. Headings in markdown

Figure 1. Elements in Markdown Part 1 – Block Elements (Code section 1)

Quotes are to be prefixed by > as the first element on the line. Lists can be added with either * , - or + at the start of the sentence. Sub-lists are added by having spaces before the bullet. Numbered/Ordered lists are created by number followed by a dot. Ordered and unordered lists can be mixed in markdown.

Horizontal straight lines represented by the

tag can be created by using dashes or stars (minimum of three).

Listing 3. Block elements in markdown

Figure 2. Elements in Markdown Part 2 – Lists (Code section 1)

Let’s use this to setup the privacy policy page for the Acme Corporation website. The content can be generated via a website like and converted to markdown via pandoc ( Using the universal theme, the pages looks like this:

Figure 3. Privacy Policy for Acme Corporation formatted using block elements (Code section 1)

We can switch back the Acme Corporation website to the eclectic theme to verify the cross theme compatibility by updating the config.yaml. We also fill up the terms of using these features. We won’t switch to the universal theme for every section hereafter.

Figure 4. Terms of Use for Acme Corporation via theme Eclectic (Code section 2)

Formatting, Inline links, code and images

You must have noticed that links in the page were automatically formatted by Hugo and converted to HTML anchor tags which can be clicked and go to the target page. This is a feature provided by Hugo’s markdown parser and we don’t need to write anything special to enable this feature. Markdown provides basic formatting support. We can surround the text with _ (underscore) or * (star) for italics, __ (double underscore) for boldface. We can use three underscores for both bold and italics.

(double tildes) are used for strike through.

Inline links can be created using [Visible text]( ) . We can add a title via [visible text]( http://link "Title") where Title is available via tooltip. We can share target links across text via footnote links by specifying a footnote location number in the link as [visible text][target 1] and then specifying a shared footnote at the bottom as [target 1]: https://path/to/target . Links can also specify locations directly like [target 1] auto-links to target the one we specified.

Inline code can be specified by surrounding it with back ticks `Inline Code` and placing it within free-flowing content. It gets formatted with a monospace font in the HTML code tag to allow spaces to flow through.

Markdown supports tags to show inline images. Support for specifying block images, image dimensions and other details are non-existent, and it’s left to the theme to implement. Images can be inlined using the similar syntax to links and prefixing that with an ! (Exclamation mark, commonly called a bang). We can use relative paths in the image tag as well.

Listing 4. Inline Formatting in Markdown

Figure 5. Elements in Markdown Part 4 – Inline Elements (Code section 3)

Using these features, we can properly label parts of the privacy policy for the Acme Corporation website and format it. The formatted privacy policy page looks much more professional and complete.

Figure 6. Updated privacy page (Code section 3)

One big advantage of having content alongside code in the entire JAM stack is the ability to have versioning. With Markdown, these formatting updated are extremely easy to understand and we get full support for forks, branches and pull requests for content. We can also have a proper software lifecycle for the website content including staging, branch views and a proper release cycle. We can write bots to manage content. Figure 7 shows the diff view of the privacy page after the updates for inline elements.

Figure 7. Diff view for the privacy page on Github. Each content change can be clearly viewed, reviewed ad managed as code.

Markdown is built to pass through HTML into content. Technically any valid HTML is also valid Markdown. You can place HTML tags within markdown to allow those to be rendered within content. You can also write unicode characters using the escape syntax which is used in HTML and XML documents. This provides access to the entire set of unicode characters including localization, emojis, symbols, etc.

Listing 5. Using HTML in markdown

Figure 8. Elements in Markdown Part 5: HTML Escaping and inline HTML (Code section 4)

Hugo supports disabling HTML tags (not unicode characters) via the skipHTML key in the configuration file config.yaml. Inline HTML with shortcodes have little value. Inline HTML can turn into a security risk if we don’t trust the creators of content as arbitrary JavaScript and CSS can be added. With little control of the embedded HTML of the theme creator, allowing embedded HTML can turn into a big problem when updating a theme. Users get freedom to be creative with HTML and the content adds layouts, alignment, color and other styling information which is difficult to clean up. It’s strongly advised to minimize the use of embedded HTML in markdown content. Formatting should be present in the theme exposed as shortcodes if needed.

When we created the config file for Acme Corporation’s website, we specified the copyright directive as Copyright © . Here we used escaped HTML for the unicode based copyright symbol. © which also works. A lot of themes take markdown in the params area giving us the power to provide formatting for the content which is rendered. Hugo provides a simple utility method to convert markdown to HTML.

Tables, Task Lists, code block

Hugo supports the extensions to Markdown popularized by Github in the Github Flavored Markdown using the exact syntax. We can create tables, task lists and provide code blocks within Hugo pages.

Hugo supports tables styled like Github as well as a shorter form where we can ignore the edge | (pipe) character.

Task lists follow the Github style and are dislayed as disabled. No automatic enabling exists as click handling and updating content on click isn’t automatically possible without involving a server to edit the files.

Markdown supports blocks of code using three backticks (“`) popularly called code fences at the start and end of the code block. The start code fence can be followed by the name of the language to get syntax specific code highlighting. Hugo uses chroma, a syntax highlighter written in Go for this purpose but can also switch to pygments, the popular python-based syntax highlighter. Pygments is slower than chroma but provides more options to control syntax highlighting. Hugo provides the theme creator with a CSS files which they can include in the page for syntax highlighting. Hugo has code fences disabled by default. To enable code fences, all the following to your config.yaml:

Other syntax highlighting options can be supplied to chroma

Listing 6. Tables Code Fences and Tasks lists from Github Flavored Markdown

Figure 9. Elements in Markdown Part 6 – Tables, Code blocks and task lists (Code section 4)

Fractions, emojis and other Hugo extensions

Hugo extends Markdown with added features which make our day-to-day use of markdown easier and more fun. In our config.yaml, we can set enableEmoji: true to use direct emojis in our source code using the syntax similar to slack, github, basecamp, trello, gitter, bitbucket with the exact same list. You can use the emoji cheat sheet from for a list of supported emojis.

Hugo automatically converts fractions from 1/2 to ½ and so on. It automatically converts headers to IDs to link directly to them.

It also supports HTML definition lists (another types of lists in HTML outside of ordered and unordered lists which are relatively less used). To declare a definition list, you can specify the term on one line followed by a : (colon) and a definition on the other.

Apart from this, Hugo provides support for custom shortcodes by which we can extend markdown by adding custom elements that render to HTML. Hugo also provides custom shortcodes, which are bundled within Hugo.

Listing 7. Emoticons, fractions and definition lists in Hugo

Not all themes have support for all markdown features. If you plan to rely on a third-party theme, a good idea is to check for feature support for all the markdown features you plan to use. A good sample page which you can try is included as in the code content with this article.

Figure 10. Elements in Markdown Part 7 – Emojis fractions and definition lists. (Code section 4)

Using all these content features, we can now pull up the about us page for the Acme Corporation. The about page has a lot of formatted content as it’s used for both marketing and investor relations.

Figure 11. About Us page for Acme Corporation using advanced markdown features (Code section 4)

Metadata Languages

Writing content is more than providing the raw data. A lot of contextual metadata associated with the content like the creation date is included, the tags, the URL, the author name, associated with the content which normally fills up the metadata table of the database. That information also needs a home. Hugo takes answers to those questions with the concept of the front matter. The Front Matter is a set of key value pairs that define the metadata for the content which is provided right before the content.

Hugo is smart with the metadata and provides a sane set of defaults. This is why we‘re able to get along providing little metadata but are still able to render. By default, Hugo gets the information from the filename, the git version control system and the OS attributes like the modified date. We need to deal in front matter only if we need to do something that Hugo can’t guess itself or we need to override to perform certain tasks.

The concept of putting metadata before the content isn’t new. It has been there from the beginning of programming. In Pascal, strings are represented by a length followed by raw binary data of that length. Many binary file formats start with a signature which is the metadata associated with the file. For example, if you open a .pdf file in a text editor, it starts is %PDF , a .png starts with .PNG , a .gif with a GIF . Jekyll, the first popular static site builder introduced the concept of metadata in the front matter and Hugo picked up the concept. Now, pretty much every Website builder uses metadata and Google even uses it as a way to rank websites in SERP.

Before going into the metadata, let’s discuss the ways to provide it. The content language and the metadata language are two different languages. Although content is provided as markdown, it’s an ill-suited choice for providing metadata. Metadata needs to be structured and needs to be easy to split into keys and values. Therefore, it needs a different language. Hugo supports three languages for providing metadata – YAML, TOML and JSON.

YAML Ain’t a Markup Language (YAML)

YAML is a language for structured data which has keys and values separated by a : (colon). The definition of YAML is meant to highlight the fact that the core use case of YAML is around structured data and not marking data, like we do in Markdown. YAML is sensitive to spaces. We use YAML for the cofig file for the Acme Corporation website. YAML supports plain key value pairs, lists, dictionaries (also calld maps and objects ) as data structures.

YAML sections are needed to separate data with metadata in content files but not required in pure yaml files like config.yaml. YAML also has the same tradeoffs as markdown – human readability over a strict specification. This comes with complexities in parsers and weird edge cases where it may be difficult to understand. YAML is the default metadata language in Jekyll (not default in Hugo) and extremely popular. We have chosen YAML in this article for the config file due to its popularity and easy of readability.

Tom’s Obvious Minimal Language (TOML)

TOML is the default metadata language in Hugo. Most of the community uses this language and most of the documentation is found in TOML. Unlike YAML, the objective of TOML is obviousness over readability. It’s human readable and doesn’t have a lot of edge cases. It has first class support for dates and fewer edge cases to worry about if writing a parser. Unfortunately, it isn’t as popular as YAML and may be intimidating to newcomers. To be successful with the Hugo community, it’s important to understand TOML. TOML uses the equal sign ( = ) instead of YAML’s colon ( : ). It’s sensitive to new line but not to indentation unlike YAML.

TOML sections are not required in content files and not in pure .toml file. Netlify supports netlify.toml configuration file for specifying the configuration of the website within code rather than a form.

JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)

JSON is a standard information exchange format extremely popular on the web. Most services expose their functionality via JSON based APIs. The objective of JSON is machine readability and efficient transmission over the network. Human readability is a bonus. Although JSON is meant to be more human readable than binary formats, JSON has strict language rules to allow writing a parser more easily which may come in the way of reading it. JSON is insensitive to spaces and new lines and relies on explicit markers for content.

Event pure JSON files require the curly braces to mark JSON objects. The objective of JSON is interoperability. This comes at a cost to readability. JSON has a lot of quotes, strict commas and brackets with no regard for newlines.

D.C.’s Mayor Fights for Control of Her City at Trump’s Front Door

Amid tensions with the president over his deployment of federal officers during protests, Washington’s mayor had “Black Lives Matter” painted near the White House in an unmistakable assertion of control.

WASHINGTON — After federal law enforcement agents and military troops lined up for days against protesters outside the White House, Mayor Muriel E. Bowser of Washington responded emphatically on Friday: She had city workers paint “Black Lives Matter” in giant yellow letters down a street she has maintained command of that is at the center of the confrontations.

The strong poke to President Trump within sight of his home underscored a larger power struggle between the two leaders over which one — the Democratic head of the District of Columbia or the president headquartered there — should decide who controls the streets that Mr. Trump has promised to dominate during protests over the killing last month of George Floyd in police custody in Minneapolis.

Ms. Bowser, a Washington native long steeped in city politics, again called on Mr. Trump on Friday to pull back all federal law enforcement officers and National Guard troops patrolling the city, including unidentified agents in riot gear, and said she would stop paying for the hotels for the Utah National Guard that she does not want in the city to begin with.

She renamed as Black Lives Matter Plaza the area in front of Lafayette Square where federal officials used chemical spray and smoke grenades on Monday to clear protesters ahead of Mr. Trump’s photo op at a historic church that faces the road that Ms. Bowser had painted. (The money for the paint job came out of the city’s mural program, city officials said.)

“We’re here peacefully as Americans on American streets,” Ms. Bowser said at the scene, standing near a sign reading, “Support D.C. Statehood.” “On D.C. streets.”

Mr. Trump, who has tried to appeal to his base by proclaiming himself a president of law and order, escalated the fight, calling Ms. Bowser “incompetent” on Twitter.

Ms. Bowser “who’s budget is totally out of control and is constantly coming back to us for ‘handouts,’ is now fighting with the National Guard, who saved her from great embarrassment,” Mr. Trump wrote. “If she doesn’t treat these men and women well, then we’ll bring in a different group of men and women!”

Ms. Bowser met this with her usual cool shrug. Asked about the president calling her incompetent, she said, “You know the thing about the pot and the kettle?”

Still, Trump officials appeared determined to make the standoff personal. Kenneth T. Cuccinelli II, the acting deputy secretary of the Department of Homeland Security, further belittled Ms. Bowser on Twitter by comparing her request to reduce the number of federal troops in Washington with the mentally ill wanting less medication.

While Mr. Trump has clashed with governors and mayors in recent months over his administration’s response to the coronavirus pandemic and deployment of the National Guard in their streets during nationwide protests of police killings, his face-off with Ms. Bowser pits the president in his current home, the international symbol of the United States, against the city in which it sits, one that lacks the self-governing authorities of other states and cities.

While the city’s mayors have long pushed for statehood — Washington has no voting representation in Congress, a fact denounced on its license plates — Ms. Bowser has been a particularly forceful voice in favor of rights and autonomy for the district as its population and federal tax contributions have swelled.

This week, as the mayor managed the federal takeover and huge protests in the city’s central business district in the middle of a pandemic, she had seen enough.

“Our approach is three-pronged,” John Falcicchio, her chief of staff, said in an interview. “We are going to say what we think is the right thing to happen, we are going to question their tactics, and we are going to show that we are actually in control.”

Mr. Trump and Attorney General William P. Barr have deployed the full arsenal of federal government law enforcement personnel, including officers from the Bureau of Prisons and Immigration and Customs Enforcement as well as Border Patrol agents.

This week, the Trump administration also floated using an obscure provision to take control of Ms. Bowser’s Metropolitan Police Department, but did not follow through.

The federal authorities — which also include officers from Homeland Security Investigations, the Secret Service, the Transportation Security Administration and the Federal Protective Service — are expected to maintain their presence through Saturday, when thousands of demonstrators plan to march to the White House.

Ms. Bowser, with the support of Speaker Nancy Pelosi, has accused the Trump administration of escalating tensions with demonstrators, including by positioning officers without identifying insignia face-to-face with protesters.

“These additional, unidentified units are operating outside of established chains of command,” Ms. Bowser wrote in a letter to Mr. Trump that her office released Friday. “This multiplicity of forces can breed dangerous confusion.”

The mayor also planned to write to governors who had deployed National Guard troops to Washington, asking them to call the units home.

Before Mr. Floyd’s killing, Ms. Bowser and Mr. Trump had engaged in cordial dialogue. The two had at least two phone calls in recent months to discuss coronavirus funding for Washington, according to a person familiar with the conversations, who said the two leaders got along during them.

After one of their calls, Mr. Trump announced on Twitter that Washington’s transit system would be receiving more than $876 million in federal funding, congratulating Ms. Bowser and calling it “a big boost.”

She responded with a tweet thanking the president for the call, but noted her administration would continue seeking an additional $775 million in stimulus funding “to make DC whole.”

But shortly after Mr. Trump lashed out at Ms. Bowser on Friday on Twitter, a lobbyist with close ties to the president announced the termination of a contract with the city government.

The lobbyist, Brian Ballard, a top fund-raiser for Mr. Trump’s re-election campaign, had entered into an agreement on May 15 to press Congress for additional coronavirus relief funding for Washington, according to a filing posted Friday.

While the District of Columbia is often treated like a state for the purposes of federal funding allocation, it was instead treated like a territory in the $2 trillion coronavirus stimulus bill signed by Mr. Trump in March. The classification meant Washington received only about $500 million, compared with a minimum of $1.25 billion allocated to each state, despite Washington’s being harder hit by the virus than most states. Its population of 705,000 is also larger than two states’.

Mr. Ballard’s firm had been pushing for Washington to retroactively receive the $750 million difference and to be treated like a state in any future coronavirus stimulus legislation, according to a person familiar with the effort.

“We are no longer in a position to deliver effective representation,” the firm wrote, “so we have respectfully withdrawn our engagement.”

The federal government has great control of the District of Columbia, an artifact of the Constitution that was updated in the 1970s with a federal law that gave the city partial autonomy, but allowed Congress to have vast powers over its laws and budget. Its National Guard is the only one out of the 54 states and territories that reports to the president.

Congress has invoked its will on the city several times over the years, blocking its needle exchange program at the height of the AIDS crisis, prohibiting the city from using its money to pay for abortions for poor women, pressing a charter school agenda on its education system and trying to block the city from requiring that most residents have health insurance. After Washington’s residents voted in 2014 to legalize the possession of marijuana — the same election that sent Ms. Bowser to the mayor’s office — Congress moved to nullify that.

During Ms. Bowser’s tenure, the city has continued along a rapid path of gentrification and has seen increases in crime and startling inequities in its school system, housing market and employment. The racial disparities in death rates between black and white residents are among the highest in the nation. Critics have accused Ms. Bowser of being too closely aligned with big developers the city’s government, like the rest of the Democratic Party, is increasingly fractured between newer progressive members and those like Ms. Bowser who remain boosters of the business community.

And on Friday, the Washington chapter of Black Lives Matter tweeted that the mayor’s move to paint the mural in front of the White House was “a performative distraction from real policy changes.”

“We are still a city that is still deeply inequitable,” said Markus Batchelor, a candidate for the City Council who represents one of Washington’s poorest neighborhoods on its State Board of Education. “We invest more on the Police Department and corrections than on programs related to jobs, youth and mental health combined. So those are the things that really don’t translate in these public overtures of Black Lives Matter.”

Для показа рекламных объявлений Etsy по интересам используются технические решения сторонних компаний.

Мы привлекаем к этому партнеров по маркетингу и рекламе (которые могут располагать собранной ими самими информацией). Отказ не означает прекращения демонстрации рекламы Etsy или изменений в алгоритмах персонализации Etsy, но может привести к тому, что реклама будет повторяться чаще и станет менее актуальной. Подробнее в нашей Политике в отношении файлов Cookie и схожих технологий.

What about Nokia's 41-megapixel PureView?

The story behind the 808 PureView smartphone as Nokia tells it is really interesting. CNET Senior Editor Josh Goldman has written one of the best explanations of the Nokia 808 Pureview's 41-megapixel camera that I've seen. I strongly suggest you read it.

In the meantime, here's a short summary of what's going on.

Juha (pronounce it YOO-hah) Alakarhu is head of camera technologies at Nokia, where he works within the Smart Devices team. Alakarhu explained to me that although Nokia has engineered the 808 to capture up to 41 megapixels, most users will view photos as the 5-megapixel default.

Usually, when you use the digital zoom on your phone, you're blowing up and cropping an image to see each pixel up close. You all know what that can look like: grainy, blocky, and not always as sharply focused or as colorful as you'd like.

/>Shot with the Nokia 808 PureView. Nokia

In the 808 PureView, Nokia uses a process called "oversampling," which -- for the 808's 5-megapixel default resolution -- condenses the information captured in 7 pixels into 1 (they call it a "superpixel"). If you zoom in on an object, you're simply seeing part of the image that's already there, rather than scaling up. This method should translate to higher-resolution digital printouts and zoom-ins than you'd normally see.

It's taken over five years to create the technology within the 808 PureView, Alakarhu said. Not only does the 808 lean on the physical size of the sensor (specifically 1/1.2-inch), there are also custom algorithms on top of the sensor to adjust the image to reduce imperfections like noise. It's this set of instructions that Nokia terms PureView, not the sensor size alone.

As CNET's Goldman has pointed out, this is an unusually large sensor for a smartphone, and it's also larger than sensors found on the vast majority of point-and-shoot cameras.

Black Lives Matter mural in front of Trump Tower defaced

Someone vandalized the Black Lives Matter mural on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, reports CBS New York. The move followed weekend clashes between supporters of the movement and pro-police demonstrators.

The mural was painted in front of Trump Tower last week to send a very clear message to the president. That message has created strong emotions.

On Monday night, cellphone video surfaced showing a man in daylight but partially disguised with a mask and hat splashing red paint on the mural, then running away.

Mayor Bill de Blasio addressed the incident on Twitter.

"To whoever vandalized our mural on 5th Avenue: nice try. @NYC_DOT has already fixed it," the mayor wrote in part.

Crews restored the mural Monday.

"We're sitting here today in 2020 and we have to go through something like this. It's a shame. It's deplorable," one man said.

Police Reform & Racial Justice

"This just agitates more and more people, without any real substance to it, at this point," another person said.

This comes after a weekend of altercations between "Back The Blue" pro-police protesters and Black Lives Matter sympathizers.

On Sunday, a fight erupted in Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, where five people were arrested and charged, including a 41-year-old man who was Tased by police. Charges against him are pending.

The incidents have deepened the nationwide controversy over police reform.

A portion of a "Black Lives Matter" mural that was vandalized with red paint along 5th Avenue outside Trump Tower in Manhattan as seen on on July 13, 2020. MIKE SEGAR / REUTERS

"There is no justice without safety and there is no safety without justice. The mere fact someone critiques problem policing is not an attack on law enforcement," said Brooklyn Borough President Eric Adams.

Adams spent much of his career as an NYPD officer. He's going to begin a series of conversations between Black Lives Matter and the police.

"If a bullet leaves a barrel of a gun, it does not discriminate if it hits an officer in a blue uniform or a young man in blue jeans, or a little baby 1 years old in a blue baby carriage," Adams said.

Adams says you can support the police and still believe the department needs reforms.

As gun violence continues to plague the city, Adams said there has to be a sense of urgency to finding common ground.

Watch the video: Επ:65-#WhiteBoySummer-Normie Culture Και Ο Δρόμος Εμπρός (November 2021).