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Blaise pascal


Blaise pascal was a French philosopher and mathematician, born in Clermont in 1623 and died in 1662 in the city of Paris. He was the son of Etienne Pascal, also a Mathematician. In 1632, the whole family went to live in Paris.

Pascal's father, who had an unorthodox educational conception, decided that he would teach his children himself and that Pascal would not study mathematics until he was 15, so he had all mathematical books and texts removed from his home. However, moved by curiosity, Pascal began to work in geometry from the age of 12, even discovering for himself that the sum of the angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles. Then his father resigned himself and offered Pascal a copy of Euclid's book.

At age 14, Pascal began to accompany his father to the Mersenne meetings, where many important personalities met. At 16, at one of the meetings, Pascal presented a single sheet of paper that contained several Projective Geometry theorems, including the one today known as the "Mystic Hexagram" which shows that "if a hexagon is inscribed in a conic, then the intersections of each one of the 3 pairs of opposite sides are collinear ". In February 1640 his work was published - "Essay on Conical Sections", in which he worked for 3 years.

In 1639 Pascal's family left Paris and moved to Rouen, where his father had been named Upper Normandy tax collector.

At eighteen and with the aim of helping his father with the task of collecting taxes, Pascal invented the first Digital camera, called Pascalinne to carry out the addition and subtraction process, and later organized the production and marketing of these calculating machines (which resembled a 1940s mechanical calculator). At least seven of these "computers" still exist; one was presented to Queen Cristina of Sweden in 1652.

When his father died in 1651, Pascal wrote to one of his sisters a letter about death with profound Christian meaning in general and in particular about his father's death. These his religious ideas were the basis for his great philosophical work. Penses which constitutes a set of personal reflections on human suffering and faith in God.

In physics, he stood out for his work "Liquid Balance Treaty" related to fluid pressure and hydraulics. Pascal's principle says that the pressure at any point in a fluid is the same, so that the pressure applied at one point is transmitted to the entire volume of the container. This is the principle of hydraulic jack and hammer.

Pascal studied and demonstrated in the work of the "Arithmetic Triangle" published in 1654 several properties of the triangle and applied them to the study of probabilities. Before Pascal, Tartaglia had used the triangle in his works, and long before, the Arabic and Chinese mathematicians had used it. This famous triangle that can be continued indefinitely by increasing the number of lines is known as Pascal's Triangle or Tartaglia Triangle. It is a triangular arrangement of numbers in which each number is equal to the sum of the pair of numbers above it. Pascal's triangle has numerous properties and relationships, for example, "the sums of numbers arranged along the diagonal of the triangle generate the Fibonacci Succession.

In correspondence with Fermat, during the summer of 1654, Pascal laid the foundations of probability theory. His last work was on the Cycloid - the curve drawn by a point on the circumference which rotates without slipping along a straight line. During this year he became disinterested in science; He spent the last years of his life practicing charity and decided to devote himself to God and religion. He died at age 39 due to a malignant tumor in his stomach that had spread to the brain.

Sources:
Great Brazilian Portuguese Encyclopedia, Editorial Encyclopedia Lda.
Boursin, Jean-Louis. Elementary dictionary of modern mathematics. Don Quixote Publications.
Jorge, A., Alves C., Fonseca, G., Barbedo, J. Infinity 12. Areal Editors.